G E O L O G Y
Northern climate - very much advantageous for thinking
and for science, thus for a Faustian culture:
Humans were born in areas of merely two seasons and
developed into areas of four seasons and into areas of other two
seasons (namely in the polar regions). So originally, thus more
(not only) naturally, we are beings of the two seasons in warm or
hot areas, but being on our way, thus more (not only) culturally,
we are also beings of the four seasons, of the two seasons in the
coldest areas (polar regions), and in some sense even of the one
season in the outer space. We became beings that can
live in both the hottest and the coldest climate zones and in some
sense, as I said, even in the outer space. That's great and terrible,
fortune and fate, destiny. Isn't it?
Humans lived and live in different (A) cliamte zones and in different
(B) cultural zones.
(A) Climate zones:
(B) Cultural zones:
Cultural zones mean cultures that are influenced by the climate
zones (see above) and other circumstances. It is no accident that
nearly all monotheistic / henotheistic religions arised in deserts,
and when they were brought to people in cultural zones without deserts,
then the religions changed more or less (depending on where, how
much different these zones were). I will not go into details because
of the derailing danger.
In our daily life we use the geocentric time (b.t.w:
this geocentric time would still be the cosmological
time, if the science did not prescribe another cosmological
time, although there is no proper definition for it).
In our daily life we use the geocentric space (b.t.w:
this geocentric space would still be the cosmological
space, if the science did not prescribe another cosmological
space, although there is no proper definition for it).
In Europe, especially in West and West-Central Europe the average
winter-temperature is often higher than +2° Celsius (35.6°
Fahrenheit) - caused by the Gulf Stream.
Please compare North America with Europe:
Europe owes its higher temperatures the Gulf Stream.
Today the Moon shows us always the same side, becasue the Moon
is synchronisated by the Earth. The physicist call that effect synchronisation
or synchronous rotation.
The German geologist, meteorologist, and polar
explorer Alfred Wegener was the founder of the theory of the continental
drift (1912). At first the people of the international institutes
and symposia laughed at him, whereas another German scientist, the
father of the nuclear fission (splitting of the atom), Otto Hahn,
acknowledged Wegener's theory (cp. Was lehrt uns die Radioaktivität
über die Geschichte der Erde?, 1926). Decades later the
people of the international institutes and symposia accepted Wegener's
theory, so that it became the most accepted theory of geology: the
There are other geotectonic theories, but they are not as well
accepted as the theory of the continental drift (plate tectonics).
Besides the theory of the continental drift (plate tectonics) there
are the theory of contraction (Saussure, Sueß, Stille, a.o.),
the theory of expansion (von Richthofen, Hilgenberg, a.o.), the
theory of undercurrent and swallowing (Ampferer, Schwinner, Cloos,
a.o.), the theory of stream-stretching (Gutenberg, Wiechert, a.o.),
the theory of oscillation (Haarmann a.o.), the theory of thermal
cycles (Joly a.o.), the theory of undation (Stille a.o.) and some
The main fundamentals of thoughts in geology are (in alphabetical
order): actualism, cataclysm (catastrophism), exceptionalism, theory
of cycles. So the geotectonic theories are based on one or more
than one of this fundamentals of thoughts. And of course: they all
should be and are consistent with the fundamental knowledge of physics
(cosmology / astronomy) and chemistry, because physics and chemistry
are the two fundamental science branches of geology.
The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's
past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological
measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy).
The geological time scale is based on fossil evidence in Earths
rocks and the age of the rocks.
Wegener's theory of the continental drift (plate tectonics) is
the currently valid theory.
The tectonic plates of the Earth:
The kneading effect is important, yes, but the radioactivity in
the inner core of the Earth is much more important, the radioactivity
in the inner core of the Earth is much more important, at least
when it comes to cause convection currents in the mantle of the
Earth and thus the continental drift (plate tectonics).
The following picture shows the bridge across the Álfagjá
rift valley in southwest Iceland, that is part of the boundary between
the Eurasian and North American continental tectonic plates.
Alfred L. Wegener, the father of the continental
drift (plate tectonics) theory:
The theory of thermal cycles is a compromise between Earth-expansion
and Earth-contraction. According to the theory of thermal cycles
heat flow from radioactive decay inside Earth surpasses the cooling
of Earth's exterior. A hypothesis is proposed in which Earth loses
its heat by cyclic periods of expansion; expansion led to cracks
and joints in Earth's interior, that could fill with magma. This
was followed by a cooling phase, where the magma would freeze and
become solid rock again, causing Earth to shrink.
Source: Rudolf Hohl, Geotektonische Hypothesen, in:
Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Erde. Brockhaus Nachschlagewerk
Geologie mit einem ABC der Geologie (4. ed.), Bd. 1; 279321.
The theory of the expansion is mainly based on
thoughts of Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833-1905) explainig the tectonic
phenomena of the earth's crust by an extension of parts of the Earth
due to the inner warming of the earth. The first widespread, comprehensive
work on the expansion of the earth was a book with the title Vom
wachsenden Erdball by Ott Christoph Hilgenberg (1896-1976),
published in 1933.
In the following videos the German Prof. Dr.-Ing. Konstantin Meyl
explains what neutrionos have to do with the expansion of the Earth:
According to Meyl the weight in the inner core of the Earth is
zero; so the inner core of the Earth is like the outer space. Meyl
says that the Earth is growing because the inner core of the Earth
is collecting neutrinos, and a neutrino is oscillating between
the size and the property of an electron and a positron; that
means: if it is always oscillating that one time it is positively
charged and the next time it is negatively charged; in average the
charge is zero, but only the average is zero; the effective
value is not zero; but what can be measured only is the average,
not the oscillations; and this is why they say »the
charge of a neutrino is zero«, but this is wrong (Konstantin
If the theory of thermal cycles as a compromise between Earth-expansion
and Earth-contraction is not false, then the Earth is something
like a geological heart.
The Earth's longest mountain range (chain) is the Ocean Ridge.
In the following picture the Ocean ridge is red coloured:
The rock cycle describes the dynamic transitions through the geologic
A diagram of the rock cycle. Legend: 1 = magma; 2 = crystallization
(freezing of rock); 3 = igneous rocks; 4 = erosion;
5 = sedimentation; 6 = sediments and sedimentary rocks; 7 = tectonic
burial and metamorphism; 8 = metamorphic rocks; 9 = melting.
It is - for example - not proven that the equator region
splits during early planet formation, a
rift forms around the equator, this area fills with
water ... and so on.
I am not totally against the theory of the Earth's expansion, but
the theory of the Earth's continental drift (plate tectonics) is
more plausible and can prove more.
Here comes - for example - the mountain range argument again. And
the Earth's longest mountain range (chain) is the Ocean Ridge:
The cause of the Earth's plate tectonics is the Earth's hot inner
core (it is radioactive).
The radioactive elements in the inner core of the Earth maintain
the enormous heat that is needed to cause the convection currents
in the mantle of the Earth and thus also to cause the plate tectonics.
The Earth got hot because of the circumstances during the early
time of our solar system and the radioactive elements in its core;
both facts made the whole earth hot during its early time (about
½-1 billion years).
The convection currents are not necessarily symmetrical; they are
not more symmetrical than those of your cooking tomato sauce.
The whole dynamics of the Earth's core are in some way linked to
plate tectonics. The Earth's inner core is a ball of solid iron
(about 80%) and nickel, surrounded by a liquid and highly dynamic
outer core, a highly viscous mantle and a solid crust that forms
the surface. Over the 4.8 billions of years, the Earth has cooled
from the inside out causing the molten iron core to partly freeze
and solidify. The heat given off as the core cools flows from the
core to the mantle to the Earth's crust through a process known
as convection. Like a pan of water boiling on a stove, convection
currents move warm mantle to the surface and send cool mantle back
to the core. This escaping heat powers the geodynamo and coupled
with the spinning of the Earth generates the magnetic field and
- as models can show - also the plate tectonics.
The thermal energy which is delivered continuously to the Earth's
- partly from slow cooling,
- partly from heat of crystallisation,
- partly from compression,
- partly from radioactive decay.
In addition, during the solidification the light elements in the
melt at the inner core boundary are enriched and spread upward.
The heat inside the Earth is converted into mechanical work by
convection currents, and this is ultimately the driving of the plate
You see that the plate tectonics and the magnetic field of the
Earth have probably the same cause.
The geoid is a physical model of the earth's shape, which in 1828
developed by the German Carl Friedrich Gauß (Gauss) - in contrast
to the geometric model of the earth ellipsoid. The term geoid
goes back to the German Johann Benedict Listing, who described it
in 1871 as a surface equal gravity potential. The geoid is used
to define heights and for measuring and describing the earth's shape.
According to Gauß (Gauss), who first described it,
it is the »mathematical figure of the Earth«, a smooth
but highly irregular surface whose shape results from the uneven
distribution of mass within and on the surface of the Earth. It
does not correspond to the actual surface of the Earth's crust,
but to a surface which can only be known through extensive gravitational
measurements and calculations. Despite being an important concept
for almost two hundred years in the history of geodesy and geophysics,
it has only been defined to high precision in recent decades.
It is often described as the true physical figure of the Earth,
in contrast to the idealized geometrical figure of a reference
The surface of the geoid is higher than the reference ellipsoid
wherever there is a positive gravity anomaly (mass excess) and
lower than the reference ellipsoid wherever there is a negative
gravity anomaly (mass deficit). **
There are different climates, different weathers, different cultures,
different languages, different thoughts. So why should there not
be differences in thinking systems, philosophies? There are such
A computer-generated image representing space debris as seen from
high Earth orbit (HEO). The two main debris fields are the ring
of objects in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and the cloud of
objects in low Earth orbit (LEO):
Martin Waldseemüller (1470-1520), Universalis Cosmographia,
Waldseemüllers 1507 world map which was the first to
show the Americas.